ืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœ ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ?

Israel-Poland Team

ื™ื•ืœื™ 23, 2020

investing in Poland -picture

ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ืžื“ื•ืจื’ืช ื›ืฉื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ื—ื•ื–ืงื” ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ื”ื›ื ืกื•ืช, ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ื”ืฆื•ืžื—ื•ืช ื”ืงื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื•ื”ื™ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื•. ืžื ืคื™ืœืช ืžืกืš ื”ื‘ืจื–ืœ ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-90 ื”ืชืž”ื’ ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื’ื“ืœ ื‘ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืื—ื•ื–ื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื”, ื›ืœ ืฉื ื”. ืื ืืชื ืžื—ืคืฉื™ื ืžืงื•ื ืฉื™ื‘ื˜ื™ื— ืชืฉื•ืื” ืœื”ืฉืงืขื” ืฉืœื›ื, ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœื›ื ืœื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืขืœ ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื›ื ื• ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืœืžืฉืงื™ืข ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื™ืกืคืง ืœื›ื ื”ืฆืฆื” ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœ ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ.

โ€‹

ืฆืžื™ื—ืชื” ืฉืœ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช

ืื—ืจื™ ืฉืืžื ืช ื”ืกื—ืจ ื”ืกื•ื‘ื™ื™ื˜ื™ืช (COMECON) ื”ื•ืคืกืงื” ื‘ืฉื ืช 1991, ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ืžื™ื”ืจื” ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืœืคืขื•ืœ ืžื•ืœ ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ืจื‘ืชื™ ื•ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืฉืชืœื ืœื” ื‘ื’ื“ื•ืœ. ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ืžื•ืขืจื›ืช ื‘ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ืฉืœ 1.11 ื˜ืจื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืœืจ ื•ื”ื™ื ืžื‘ื•ืกืกืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืขืœ ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืžื›ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืชื—ื‘ื•ืจืชื™ ื•ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื”ื™ื™ืฆื•ื ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ืช ืืฉืจ ื ื”ื ื™ืช ืžื”ืชื•ืฆืจ ื”ืื™ื›ื•ืชื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื’ืจืžื ื™ื” ืืฉืจ ืžืฉืงื™ืขื” ื›-54 ื‘ื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืœืจ ื‘ืกื—ื•ืจื” ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช.

ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ื‘ื™ืฆืขื” ื”ืกื‘ื” ืžืœืื” ืœื›ืœื›ืœืช ื”ืื™ืจื• ืกื™ื™ืขื” ืœื” ืจื‘ื•ืช ื‘ืžืฉื‘ืจ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ ืฉืœ 2015, ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืฉื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืฉืœื” ืœื ืฉื™ื ืชื” ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ืœืฉืœื™ืœื™ืช. ืื—ื•ื– ื”ืื‘ื˜ืœื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืžืฉื™ืš ืœืฆืžื•ื— ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ื”ื“ืจื’ืชื™ ื•ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœื™ื•ืœื™ 2019 ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฆื ืžืชื—ืช ืœืžืžื•ืฆืข ื‘ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคืื™ ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ืขืœ โ€“ 5.3%.
ื›ื‘ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืž-27 ืฉื ื” ืฉื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ืจืง ืฆื•ืžื—ืช ื•ื”ื‘ื™ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื ืชื•ืŸ ื”ื–ื” ืžืกื™ื— ื‘ืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื”ื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ื˜ ื•ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืืช ืžืฉืจื“ื™ ื—ื‘ืจื•ืชื™ื”ื ืœืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืื• ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื‘ืคืจื•ื™ืงื˜ื™ื ืคื•ืœื ื™ื™ื ืื• ื‘ืžืฉืง ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœืœ.

ืžืกืคื™ืง ืœื”ืกืชื›ืœ ืขืœ ื”ื“ื•”ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืžื” ืžื”ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืคื™ื ื ืกื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื›ืžื• Deloitte ืื• Baker McKenzie ื›ื“ื™ ืœืจืื•ืช ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ืฉืงืขื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื ื›ืก ืžื ื™ื‘ ื•ืื™ื›ื•ืชื™.

ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ

ื”ืžืžืฉืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ื”ื‘ื™ื ื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืžื–ืžืŸ ื›ื™ ืื—ื“ ื”ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœื›ืœื›ืœื” ืฉืœื”ื ืœื”ื™ืฉืืจ ื‘ืžื’ืžืช ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื–ื” ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื–ืจื•ืช, ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ื‘ื•ื“ื“ื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืฉืืคืฉืจ ืœื”ื’ื™ื“ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื‘ืœื‘ ืฉืœื ืฉื”ืŸ ืคืชื•ื—ื•ืช ืœื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื–ืจื•ืช, ื”ืžืืžืฆื™ื ืฉื”ื ืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื‘ืžืฉื™ื›ื” ืฉืœ ืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืœืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืขืฆื•ืžื” ื•ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืคืกืงืช.
ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืงื™ื™ืžื™ื 14 ืื–ื•ืจื™ ืกื—ืจ ื›ืœื›ืœื™ื™ื ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื (SEZs) ืืฉืจ ืžืฉืชืœื‘ื™ื ืขื ืคืืจืงื™ื ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืื–ื•ืจื™ ืžืกื—ืจ ืฉืจืง ืžื—ื›ื™ื ื‘ื–ืจื•ืขื•ืช ืคืชื•ื—ื™ื ืœืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื”ื–ืจื™ื ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืื• ืœื™ื”ื ื•ืช ืžื”ื˜ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืžืก ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ื•ืช.

ื›ืžื” ืžื”ื”ื˜ื‘ื•ืช ืฉื”ืžืžืฉืœ ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ ืžืฆื™ืข ืœืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื–ืจื™ื:

  • ืžืœื’ื•ืช ืฉืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ืžื—ืงืจ ื•ื‘ืคื™ืชื•ื— (R&D), ื”ืฉืžื” ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื“ื•ืฉื™ื ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ื, ืฉื™ืžื•ืจ ืกื‘ื™ื‘ืชื™, ืœื•ื’ื™ืกื˜ื™ืงื” ื•ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ื‘ืช ืงื™ื™ืžื.
  • ืคืืจืงื™ื ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื ืขื ื›ืœ ื”ืชืฉืชื™ืช ื”ื ื“ืจืฉืช ืœืžื—ืงืจ ื•ืคื™ืชื•ื—
  • ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืžืžืก ืœื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ื”ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืื–ื•ืจื™ ื”ืกื—ืจ ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื
  • ื”ื˜ื‘ื•ืช ืžืก ืœืžืจื›ื–ื™ ืžื—ืงืจ ื•ืคื™ืชื•ื— ืฉื™ื•ืงืžื• ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ
  • ื”ื˜ื‘ื•ืช ืžืก ื‘ืจื›ื™ืฉื” ืฉืœ ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื—ื“ื™ืฉื•ืช

ื›ืžื• ืฉืฉืžืชื ืœื‘ ืื—ื“ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ืžืชื’ืื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ืขืœ ืขืฆืžื• ื‘ืžืืžืจ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื™ื ื“ื™ ื”ืจื‘ื”, ื–ื” ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ืื–ื•ืจ ื”ืกื—ืจ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ื™ื ื”ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ืฉืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ืงื™ืžื”. ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื ืชืขื›ื‘ ืขืœื™ื”ื ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืžื” ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ.

ืงื™ื™ืžื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ 14 ืื–ื•ืจื™ ืกื—ืจ ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื™ื ื”ืคื–ื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืžื™ืงื•ื ื’ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ื™ื ืืกื˜ืจื˜ื’ื™ื ื‘ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ, ืืœื• ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ืžื•ืคืจื“ื™ื ื•ืœื ืžื™ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืฉื‘ื”ื ื ื™ืชื ืช ื”ืขื“ืคื” ืœืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœืžืฉื•ืš ืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื•ืขืกืงื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืœืคื•ืœื™ืŸ, ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืžืฉืจื•ืช ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืคื•ืœื ื™ื, ืœืคืชื— ืืช ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื•ืœื”ืื™ืฅ ืืช ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช. ื”ืื–ื•ืจื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื”ื•ืงืžื• ื‘ืืžืฆืข ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-90 ื•ืขืชื™ื“ื™ื ืœืคืขื•ืœ ืขื“ ืœ2026, ืื ืœื ื™ื•ืืจืš ื”ื—ื•ืง.

ื”ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื•ื”ืžืœื’ื•ืช ืฉืžืžืฉืœืช ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืขื ื™ืงื” ืœืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื”ืŸ ื—ืกืจื•ืช ืชืงื“ื™ื ื‘ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคืื™, ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืกื›ื•ืžื™ื ื”ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœ-82.5 ื‘ื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืื™ืจื• ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ืฉืœ ืฉืฉ ืฉื ื™ื, ื–ื” ื”ืกื›ื•ื ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ืฉืœ ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ื”ืžื•ืขื ืง ื›ืชืžืจื™ืฅ ืœืขืกืงื™ื. ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื–ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืงืจื ื•ืช ืžื‘ื ื™ื•ืช ืื• ืชื•ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ืœืื•ืžื™ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืžืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœืงื‘ืœ ืขื“ 70% ืžืกืš ื”ืขืœื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ื ื“ืจืฉื•ืช ื•ื”ืกื›ื•ืžื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืขื“ ืœื’ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ 10 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืื™ืจื•.

โ€‹

ืจื•ืฆื™ื ื”ื‘ื”ืจื•ืช ? ื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ืฉืืœื•ืช ?

3 + 12 =

โ€‹ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื–ืจื•ืช ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“ FDI

ื”ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื”ื–ืจื•ืช ื™ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืช ืœืžื‘ื˜ื™ื—ื•ืช ื•ืžื ื™ื‘ื•ืช, ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ื ืชื•ื ื™ื ืกืš ื”ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื‘ืฉื ืช 2019 ื”ื’ื™ืข ืœ-13.9 ื‘ื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืœืจ, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืกืš ื”ืžื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื‘ื‘ื•ืจืกื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช ื”ื’ื™ืขื” ืœืฉื•ื•ื™ ืฉืœ 236.5 ื‘ื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื•ืœืจ โ€“ ืขืœื™ื™ื” ืฉืœ 26% ื‘ืชืงื•ืคื” ืฉืœ ืคื—ื•ืช ืžืขืฉื•ืจ. ืœื ืœื—ื™ื ื ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ืขื™ืงืจื™ืช ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ืื™ืจื•ืคื” ืืฉืจ ื‘ื” ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ื–ืจื™ื ืœื”ืฉืงื™ืข, ื”ื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ื–ืืช ืœื ืจืง ื‘ื’ืœืœ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ื—ื–ืงื” ืืœื ื’ื ื‘ื–ื›ื•ืช ื›ื•ื— ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื”ืื™ื›ื•ืชื™, ื”ืžื™ืงื•ื ื”ื’ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ ืฉืœ ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืคื™ืกืงืœื™ืช ืฉืคื•ืขืœืช ืœืžืขืŸ ืขืกืงื™ื ื•ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช.

ื™ืฉ ื›ืžื” ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ื‘ื”ื ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ื ืžื’ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืืช ืื—ื•ื–ื™ ื”ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ืฉืœ ื–ืจื™ื, ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”. ื”ืชื—ื•ืžื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ื ื“ืœ”ืŸ (ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ื–ื” ื”ืงืฉื•ืจ ืœืฉื˜ื—ื™ื ื—ืงืœืื™ื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ืจื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืข), ื‘ื ืงืื•ืช ื•ื—ื‘ืจื•ืช ืกื—ืจ. ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื”ื”ื’ื‘ืœื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืœื ืžื•ื ืขื•ืช ืžืื—ื•ื– ืžื˜ื•ืจืฃ ืฉืœ 94 ืžื”ืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ืฉื”ืขื™ื“ื• ื›ื™ ื™ื—ื–ืจื• ืœื”ืฉืงื™ืข ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ืช ืฉืชื™ื ืชืŸ ืœื”ื.
ื”ืžืฉืงื™ืขื™ื ื”ื–ืจื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื ื”ื ื™ื ื’ื ืžื”ืฉื•ืง ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ ืฉืžื•ืจื›ื‘ ืž-38 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื”ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื™ื ื›ื•ื— ืฆืจื›ื ื™ ืขืฆื•ื ื•ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืื•ื“ ืœืขืกืงื™ื ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ื ืœื”ื‘ ืœืชืžื•ืš ื‘ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ืช.

ื”ื›ื ื• ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื ืจืฉื™ืžื” ืขื ื›ืžื” ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื•ื—ืกืจื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืฉืงืขื•ืช ื–ืจื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ:

ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื—ื–ืงื™ื ื•ืžื•ื‘ื”ืงื™ื:

  • ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื‘ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืžืชืžื“ืช
  • ืžื™ืงื•ื ื’ืื•ื’ืจืคื™ ื™ื™ื—ื•ื“ื™ ื”ืžื—ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื–ืจื— ืœืžืขืจื‘ ืื™ืจื•ืคื”
  • ื›ื•ื— ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื—ืจื•ืฅ, ืžืฉื›ื™ืœ ื•ื–ื•ืœ ื”ื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื›ืžื” ืฉืคื•ืช
  • ืžื˜ื‘ืข ื™ืฆื™ื‘ ื•ื“ื™ืจื•ื’ ืืฉืจืื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืื•ืžื™ ื™ืฆื™ื‘
  • ืžืฉืง ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ื—ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœื•

ื—ืกืจื•ื ื•ืช:

  • ืคืจื•ืฆื“ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืขืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ืœืงื—ืช ื–ืžืŸ
  • ื—ื•ืกืจ ื•ื•ื“ืื•ืช ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื”ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืžื˜ื‘ืข ื”ืื™ืจื•
  • ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืขื ืื™ืฉ ืžืงื•ืžื™ ืœื”ื‘ื ืช ื”ืชืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืืจื’ื•ื ื™ืช ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช

ืžื™ื“ืข ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ ืขืœ ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื” ื”ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช

ื”ืžื˜ื‘ืข โ€“ ื–ืœื•ื˜ื™

ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื‘ืžืฉืง – 4.7%+

ืื™ื ืคืœืฆื™ื” โ€“ 1.3%+

ืชืž”ื’ โ€“ 360,000 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืื™ืจื• (ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืฉื ืช 2011)

ืื—ื•ื– ืื‘ื˜ืœื” – 5.2%

ืฉื›ืจ ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื ื—ื•ื“ืฉื™ โ€“ 610.8 ืื™ืจื•

ืฉื›ืจ ืžืžื•ืฆืข ืœื—ื•ื“ืฉ โ€“ 1,702.5 ืื™ืจื•

ืจื•ืฆื™ื ื”ื‘ื”ืจื•ืช ? ื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ืฉืืœื•ืช ?

14 + 9 =

ื›ืชื‘ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช

ืœืžื›ื™ืจื” ื ื›ืก ืžื ื™ื‘ ืขื ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื•ื•ืจืฉื”

ืœืžื›ื™ืจื” ื ื›ืก ืžื ื™ื‘ ืขื ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืžืจื›ื– ื•ื•ืจืฉื”

ืžื—ื™ืจ 31 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื–ืœื•ื˜ื™ (ื› 6.86 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ โ‚ฌ)ื•ืจืฉื” ื ื›ืก ืžื ื™ื‘ ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืฉืจื“ื™ื + ืงื•ืžืช ืžืกื—ืจ (1955) ืžืจื›ื– ื•ืจืฉื” ืžืขื’ืœ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ - ืœื‘ ื”ืขื™ืจ. ื› 8 ื“ืงื•ืช ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ืžืชื—ื ืช ืจื›ื‘ืช ืžืจื›ื–ื™ืช, 10 ื“ืงื•ืช ื”ืœื™ื›ื” ืžื”ืงื ื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืคื•ืจืกื ื–ืœื•ื˜ื™, 15 ื“ืงื•ืช ื ืกื™ืขื” ืžืฉื“ื” ื”ืชืขื•ืคื”. ื‘ืื–ื•ืจ ื‘ื ื™ื™ื ื™ ืžืฉืจื“ื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื™ื (ื”ื‘ื ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืื™ืจื•ืคื”...

ืงืจืื• ืขื•ื“
ืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืขื ืžื™ื•ืคื” ื›ื— ืคื•ืœื ื™ -ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ

ืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืขื ืžื™ื•ืคื” ื›ื— ืคื•ืœื ื™ -ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ืช ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ

ื ืฆื™ื’ื•ืช ืคื•ืœื ื™ืช - ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืขื ืžื™ื•ืคื” ื›ื•ื— ืคื•ืœื ื™ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื›ืœื›ืœื™ืช ืฉื ืžืฉื›ืช ื›ื‘ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืขืฉืจื™ื ืฉื ื”, ื’ื ื‘ืขืชื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžืฉื‘ืจื™ื ื›ืœื›ืœื™ื™ื ื’ืœื•ื‘ืœื™ื™ื, ืขื™ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืชืžื™ื›ื” ืžืžืฉืœืชื™ืช ื‘ืชืฉืชื™ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืขืกืงื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื•ื”ืงืœื•ืช ืžื™ืกื™ื. ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืจืง ื—ืœืง ืงื˜ืŸ ืžื”ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ืคื›ื” ื‘ืžืจื•ืฆืช ื”ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช ืœืื‘ืŸ ืฉื•ืื‘ืช ื‘ืขื‘ื•ืจ...

ืงืจืื• ืขื•ื“
ื—ื•ื–ื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“ ืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื”ื

ื—ื•ื–ื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“ ืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืขืœื™ื”ื

ืื—ื“ ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื”ื ื—ืฉืงื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื—ื•ื–ื” ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” (Umowa O Pracฤ™), ืืš ืงื™ื™ืžื™ื ืกื•ื’ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื—ื•ื–ื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืคืจื˜ื™ื ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืื•ื“ ืœื“ืขืช ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืชืชื—ื™ืœื• ืœื—ืคืฉ ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืื•, ืื ืืชื ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืจื™ืœื•ืงื™ืฉื™ื™ืŸ, ืื– ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ. ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื”ืื—ืจืื™ ืขืœ ื—ื•ื–ื™ ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื...

ืงืจืื• ืขื•ื“
ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“  ืœืงื ื•ืช ? ืœื”ืฉื›ื™ืจ ?ืœื™ืกื™ื ื’ ?

ืจื›ื‘ ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“ ืœืงื ื•ืช ? ืœื”ืฉื›ื™ืจ ?ืœื™ืกื™ื ื’ ?

ืื ืืชื ืงื•ืจืื™ื ืืช ื”ืฉื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• โ€“ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื ืžืชืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืขืกืงื™ื ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืื• ืฉื”ืขืชืงืชื ืืช ืžืงื•ื ื”ืžื’ื•ืจื™ื ืฉืœื›ื ืœืคื•ืœื™ืŸ. ืงื™ื‘ืœืชื ื”ืฆืขืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”, ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืœืคืชื•ื— ืขืกืง ืื• ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื›ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื™ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืืชื ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช. ืขื•ืžื“ื•ืช ื‘ืคื ื™ื›ื ื›ืžื” ืื•ืคืฆื™ื•ืช ืืฉืจ ืœื ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืžื” ืฉืžืงื•ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ : ืจื›ื™ืฉืช ืจื›ื‘...

ืงืจืื• ืขื•ื“
ืžื›ื™ืจืช ”ื”ืฉื ื”” ื‘ื•ื•ืจืฉื” โ€“ ืคื ื˜ื”ืื•ืก ื‘ื’ื•ืจื“ ื”ืฉื—ืงื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื‘ EU

ืžื›ื™ืจืช ”ื”ืฉื ื”” ื‘ื•ื•ืจืฉื” โ€“ ืคื ื˜ื”ืื•ืก ื‘ื’ื•ืจื“ ื”ืฉื—ืงื™ื ื”ื›ื™ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ื‘ EU

ื–ืืช ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ืขืกืงื” ืฉืฉื‘ืจื” ืฉื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ืง ื”ื ื“ืœ"ืŸ ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื”. ืžื—ื™ืจ ืกื•ืคื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืขืกืงื” ื ืฉืžืจ ื‘ืกื•ื“ ืืš ืื ืฉื™ ื”ื ื“ืœ"ืŸ ืžืขืจื™ื›ื™ื ืฉืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืขืกืงื” ืฉืœ 27 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ื–ืœื•ื˜ื™ (ื› 6.5 ืžื™ืœื™ื•ืŸ ืื™ืจื•). ื”ื ื›ืก ื‘ืฉื˜ื— ื›ื•ืœืœ ืฉืœ 600 ืž"ืจ, ืžืžื•ืงื ื‘ืงื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขืœื™ื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื’ื“ืœ ื”ื™ื•ืงืจื” โ€žลปagiel Libeskindaโ€ ืฉื ืžืฆื ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช Zล‚ota 44...

ืงืจืื• ืขื•ื“
ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืคืชื•ื— ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ืข”ืž ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“ ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืžืขืฉื™

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืคืชื•ื— ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ืข”ืž ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ โ€“ ืžื“ืจื™ืš ืžืขืฉื™

ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ื ื›ืœืœืช ื‘ืจืฉื™ืžืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืื™ืจื•ืคืื™ื•ืช ื‘ื”ื ื“ื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืคืชื•ื— ืขืกืง (ื—ื‘ืจื”), ื’ื ืื ืื™ื ืš ืชื•ืฉื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” (ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ โ€“ ืื“ื ืคืจื˜ื™ ืขื ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ ื‘ืœื‘ื“). ืขืกืง ื‘ืคื•ืœื™ืŸ ืžืงื ื” ืœื›ื ืœื ืžืขื˜ ื™ืชืจื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืคื•ืชื— ื‘ืคื ื™ื›ื ืืช ืฉื•ืง ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืื™ื—ื•ื“ ืื™ืจื•ืคืื™ ืขื ื›ืœ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื”ืžื’ื•ืœื ื‘ื•. ืื ื• ืขื•ืกืงื™ื ืœื...

ืงืจืื• ืขื•ื“

ืชื’ื•ื‘ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช

    ืœืขืงื•ื‘ ืื—ืจื™ื ื•